There are actually a bunch of differences permanent teeth and "baby" teeth or "milk" teeth:
The first is color: As the name suggests, milk teeth tend to be whiter, whereas permanent teeth are a bit more discolored.
The roots of permanent teeth are much longer, so that might be an indicator of what kind of tooth you've lost.
Because the roots are longer, permanent teeth don't come out as easily. Unless you were involved in an accident, collision, or fight - it's unlikely that your canine tooth would fall out of its own accord.